Cannabidiol (CBD) Oil
Noun | kan-ə-bə-ˈdī-ˌȯl ˈȯi(-ə)l
Popular natural concentrate, tincture, or extract. It contains high concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD) extracted from either marijuana or hemp.
“Mr. Hemp Flower’s Full Spectrum CBD oil is the most effective product I’ve tried for arthritis pain.”
“Cannabidiol oil is a safe, natural remedy that you can give to your pet.”
What Is CBD Oil?
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is a derivative of the hemp plant and arguably one of the most talked-about products of the 21st century. Researchers attribute most of the medicinal effects associated with the cannabis plant to cannabidiol.
Cannabidiol is the second most prominent cannabinoid in marijuana and the first most prominent in the hemp plant. After extraction, this cannabinoid gets diluted with a carrier oil like coconut or hemp seed oil, creating the CBD oil we use today. One of the top reasons people use CBD oil is to manage symptoms of chronic pain and anxiety.
CBD oil is one of the fastest-growing wellness trends in the United States. Federally, hemp-derived CBD oil with less than 0.3% THC is legal to sell and buy in all 50 states. The rapid growth of hemp-derived CBD oil market brought concerns of potentially ineffective products, which raised questions about stricter regulatory measures.
What Is Cannabidiol?
Cannabidiol is the main chemical compound found in the hemp plant. Unlike marijuana, the hemp plant contains a minimal amount of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — or the molecule that makes the user high. The legal THC limit in hemp flower is less than 0.3% in the United States and 0.2% in European countries. Cannabidiol doesn’t cause any psychotropic effects or an altered state of mind in the user. Its non-toxicity and safety profile contributed to its spread as a natural cannabis remedy that doesn’t produce a high.
How does cannabidiol interact with the body? All phytocannabinoids (plant-derived cannabinoids) interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important physiologic systems in the body. It’s basically a system of receptors, enzymes, and (endo) cannabinoids that maintains the body’s internal balance (homeostasis).
When you consume CBD oil, the phytocannabinoid (CBD) influences the ECS’s receptors or other biological pathways. The main endocannabinoid receptors are CB1 and CB2, which are found in the brain, immune system cells, etc. Scientists believe that this cannabinoid activates one of the brain’s central serotonin receptors, known as 5-HT1A. This may explain its potential to treat depression and anxiety.
Cannabidiol’s interaction with the body is complex, which is why researchers believe this one component can have so many different effects on the body. An interesting fact about this cannabinoid is that it can inhibit the intoxicating effects of THC.
Types of CBD Oil
CBD oil is available in a variety of forms and is incorporated in different formulas. The four main types are:
- Isolate: This is arguably the first type of hemp-derived oil to hit the market back in 2015. Pure, 100% CBD oil was the product that relieved the stigma around non-intoxicating cannabis compounds. An isolate is raw CBD made by stripping off all the other cannabinoids and terpenes until the extract gets a crystalline powder of pure cannabidiol. To create the oil, this cannabinoid is mixed with a carrier oil like coconut or olive oil. The isolate reaches a purity range of 99.9% and is free from any THC. There is CBD isolated within a purity range of 99.5% that may still have traces of THC.
- Broad spectrum: This type falls somewhere between isolate and full spectrum oil. Broad spectrum cannabidiol oil contains CBD, plus other phytocannabinoids and terpenes, minus THC.
- Full Spectrum: As the name suggests, this type of CBD oil contains the entire cannabinoid profile, including THC. Full spectrum refers to each compound extracted from the cannabis plant.
- Whole-plant: Many believe that full spectrum is the same as whole-plant. However, there is a major difference between the two. They are very similar, with the difference that whole-plant CBD oil is way less refined than full spectrum and contains naturally found fats, vitamins, and other materials. It’s like having the entire hemp plant profile in a bottle. Also, many manufacturers add terpenes in the full spectrum oil after extracting the cannabinoids. On the other hand, whole-plant oil is the raw extract with terpenes and cannabinoids in their natural state.
Types of CBD Products
Cannabidiol oil can be infused in many other products and consumed via different consumption methods, including:
- Edibles like broad spectrum and full spectrum gummies, chocolates, cake pops, etc.
- Topicals like creams, ointments, lotions, sprays, etc.
- Sublingual sprays
- Vape pens and cartridges
Is CBD Legal?
Cannabidiol is legal only when derived from hemp plants with less than 0.3% THC grown by a licensed USA cultivator. Hemp was legalized with the signing of the 2018 Farm Bill into law by President Trump. According to federal guidelines, hemp plants must contain less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis, including the levels of THCA, the precursor of THC. Each state and state district has passed rules and regulations, so make sure to check the laws on age requirements and other things before you buy.
Uses and Benefits
Research on this component is still in its infancy but shows promising results and potential for the treatment of several ailments, including:
- Pain and inflammation: One of the main reasons people use this natural remedy is to help with pain and inflammation. Studies show the potential of this component in treating ailments caused by inflammation.
- Anxiety: Some people use it as an alternative to anti-anxiety medication. One study showed that 200 milligrams of CBD might be potentially the optimal dose to effectively prevent short-term anxiety, especially one associated with public speaking.
- Epilepsy: The story about the children with epilepsy who were given CBD oil for their seizures captivated the world. The effects cannabidiol had on them were overwhelmingly positive, which eventually led the FDA to investigate the potential of this cannabinoid for epilepsy. Research on this compound as an anticonvulsant was strong, so the FDA approved CBD in the form of Epidiolex for the treatment of rare forms of childhood epilepsy.
- Safe for pets: Pet owners worldwide have started giving their pets CBD oil for pain, arthritis, inflammation, epilepsy, and anxiety. We need more research on the effects of using cannabidiol for pets in the long run. So, a rule of thumb when using this product in pets (and humans, too) is to start with a tiny dose and work upwards.
Each state adopted different laws regarding labeling of CBD oil. Federal law prohibits manufacturers from making health claims on the label. This means that the buyer should avoid buying CBD oils that claim they cure a disease or condition. Reputable cannabidiol producers include the following information on their product labeling:
- Amount of active CBD per serving
- Ingredient panel
- Net weight
- Whether the oil is full spectrum, broad spectrum, or isolate
- Date and batch code
- Manufacturer or distributor name
Are There Any Side Effects?
According to research, CBD oil can trigger side effects. The severity and type of side effects depend on the individual. Therefore, when consuming it, you may notice:
- Changes in appetite
- Changes in mood
- Dry mouth
One of the potential risks of consuming CBD oil is that it may increase liver enzymes. This means that people with liver conditions should use it with caution. They should start therapy under supervision of a doctor who can perform regular checkup of blood liver enzyme levels.
CBD oil can interact with certain medications, which is why anyone who’s contemplating taking this medicine for an ailment should talk to a professional. Cannabidiol may interact with some epilepsy drugs, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, migraine medications, etc. This is because it inhibits an enzyme known as cytochrome P450 (CYP450), used by certain drugs for metabolization. During an interaction, cannabidiol may increase the toxicity or decrease the potency of these drugs.
How Long Does CBD Stay in Your System?
It’s different for everyone. Typically, it stays in your system anywhere from 2 to 5 days. For some people, it may linger for weeks. The more the person uses it, the longer it will stay in their system. Frequency of use, method of use, body mass index, and type of food the person eats also affect the time it stays in the system.
Oils and tinctures taken through the digestive system or sublingually linger longer. Compared to that, vaping enters the lungs quickly and also leaves the body quickly.
Cannabidiol oil is a popular natural concentrate derived from the hemp plant. Its main ingredient is cannabidiol, a phytocannabinoid found in cannabis that offers a range of potential health benefits. Hemp-derived CBD oil is a legal product in the United States.